When the River Took John Squires
“We don’t belong on this river.” (Nicole Rifkin) When the River Took John Squires Patrick Burke Feb 28, 2019 For years, three old friends from California had been making an annual pilgrimage to fish Alaska’s wild and pristine waterways. But in 2018, only two came home. Text
Devyn Powell’s De Havilland Beaver bumped across the whitecapped surface of Hammersly Lake, in Alaska’s Katmai National Park and Preserve , for 200 yards before the aircraft settled to an uneasy stop. The veteran bush pilot cut the engine, and the propeller went silent, leaving only the roar of American Creek, a short distance away across the tundra. It was June 19, 2018, and the river was louder than John Squires, Argust Smith, and Randy Viglienzone had expected at this distance, but the excitement of being back in Alaska drowned out any alarm bells in their heads.
The men unloaded their gear, then watched as Powell’s floatplane took off, leaving them more than 50 miles from the nearest road. They set to work organizing their gear and inflating their NRS raft, which belonged to Squires, a mostly-retired court reporter from Lodi, California. Though all three men had experience on big Alaskan rivers, Squires had the most—which made him the de facto leader of this six-day float. He was 71 years old. Smith was 76, and Viglienzone was 68. The men, all from California, had been friends for many years.
Each man wore Gore-Tex waders and a puffy jacket—Smith’s a bright blue, which Squires gave him hell for, grousing that gaudy colors interfered with the beauty of the wilderness. Smith also wore a knit hat with puff balls dangling from the earflaps, earning him more hell. Smith and Viglienzone each carried a .44-caliber Ruger Alaskan pistol holstered at the chest, a precaution against bears .
There was much to do, and everything takes longer on the tundra. They’d caught a window between storm fronts, but more bad weather was blowing in. The same winds that stirred the surface of the lake now lashed them as they pulled together their gear. It took all three men to lug the raft several hundred yards to the river. Finally, with fly rods assembled and camping gear tied down tight, they shoved off. A swift current grabbed hold of the raft, and Squires confidently leaned into the oars.
Locals refer to the river simply as the American. Famous for the abundance and size of its rainbow and Dolly Varden trout, the river winds through the tundra for 40 miles, dropping more than 1,000 feet from its headwaters at Hammersly Lake to the braided inlets of Lake Coville. American Creek is larger than its name suggests, and its character changes dramatically with the seasons and the weather. In August, it can be too low to float. But now, in June, it was still very much spring in Katmai. Local guides know that running the American that early brings all kinds of hazards. Snowmelt from the Aleutian Range and storms blowing in from the Bering Sea can quickly swell the river to dangerous levels. Channels that had been open the season before can be clogged with logs and other debris.
Squires’ group was only the second to float the American that season. They were three days behind a professional guide with two clients, camped somewhere on the river below.
It was midmorning when they finally pushed off. The plan was to average around six river miles per day. The first day would be the shortest; they intended to float just a few miles, stopping along the way to fish, before making their first camp. But what Squires’s group encountered that morning was not the river they’d expected.
John Squires had first set boots in the Alaska wilderness 15 years earlier, on a backpacking trip in Lake Clark National Park . Since then the Last Frontier had never been far from his mind. He stored his rafting equipment in a lockbox at the floatplane launch in the sparsely populated Alaskan village of Iliamna and returned each summer to fish. In recent years, Viglienzone and Smith were regulars in his raft.
Together they’d floated hundreds of miles of whitewater, doing things in their retirement years that the average 30-year-old would think twice about. They’d lowered their gear down a 30-foot waterfall on the Copper and fired warning shots over a charging bear on the Koktuli.
“Not everybody is wired for it,” said Joe Hauner, Squires’s 38-year-old stepson and, most years, his right-hand man on the Alaska trips. Without a guide, the trips were often brutally exhausting. But, as Hauner explained, that was part of the fun. “You want it to suck 90 percent of the time, because that other 10 percent is what no one else gets. If everybody liked it, then it wouldn’t be great.”
For these men, doing everything themselves was important. The months of planning were as much a part of the adventure as the trip itself. To go through a lodge or hire a guide would have been to miss the point.
“The closeness and friendship is what it’s all about,” said Viglienzone. “For six months before the Alaska trips, we would get together to plan and to tie flies. It was a whole romance.”
Do-it-yourself trips are not uncommon on Alaska’s remote rivers, but a group with an average age above 70 is nearly unheard-of. “Not many people can handle it,” said Chad Hewitt, owner of Rainbow River Aviation—the air taxi service in Iliamna—and the Rainbow River Lodge. “And the ones who do, it’s definitely a younger crowd.”
Still, slowing down was never a consideration for Viglienzone, Smith, and Squires. They would begin planning their next Alaska trip almost as soon as the last one ended.
Based on research online and conversations with locals, they had expected to encounter moderate flows this far up, at the headwaters of the American. They were told they’d likely even need to drag their raft through some shallow sections. But it had been storming in Katmai for nearly a week; the river was unusually high, even for June, and still rising. As soon as they launched, they knew something wasn’t right.
We do not belong on this river, Smith thought. But he kept it to himself.
There were none of the exposed gravel bars they’d expected to find. None of the softer current seams or slower eddies. Mile after mile, for 50 feet from bank to bank, the current was relentless . They’d been warned about a few massive midriver boulders, which normally stood several feet above the surface. The ones they saw were almost completely submerged.
Argust Smith ( Wray Sinclair )
It was nearly impossible to stop and rest. Twice they pulled off the river and searched for a spot to camp and wait for the river to come down to a manageable level. But the banks had been overrun, and both areas were swamped with water. They had no choice but to continue.
Squires was on the oars for five hours, in a constant battle with water and rock, his arms growing increasingly fatigued. Holding the heavy oars up out of the water was strenuous, but whenever a blade dipped below the surface it caught the top of a boulder, jamming the handle into his face or ribs.
With the water at this level, arguably more dangerous than the boulders was the wood. Jagged logjams and overhanging tangles of branches known as sweepers awaited them around every bend. Sometime after 4 p.m., the raft washed into a sharp left-hand turn. The river narrowed and the water accelerated, funneling them toward a twisted mass of downed wood.
“Sweeper!” they yelled in unison. Squires quickly angled the raft away from the hazard, back-rowing as hard as he could, but there was no avoiding it. He was a skilled oarsman, but he was exhausted, and the current was too strong.
That’s it, Smith thought. We’re going under.
On backcountry trips, John Squires would let his beard grow in to match his mustache. Both were now white, as was his closely trimmed hair. He had a tattoo on his left forearm: a river, mountains, and a raven in flight. The wilderness was literally a part of him.
Squires grew up exploring the mountains near his hometown of Lodi, in California’s Central Valley, when the Sierra Nevada was still truly wild. Together with his wife, Vicki, he brought up three children and two stepchildren the same way he was raised— backpacking and fishing . Squires was always in search of the most remote destinations. When California’s Desolation Wilderness no longer lived up to its name, he moved farther afield: Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and, eventually, Alaska.
His goal was solitude, but Squires enjoyed sharing the experience. He met Smith, then a high school teacher in Lodi, in the early 1980s, through mutual friends. Eventually, Smith introduced him to Viglienzone, a successful commercial insurance broker from Morada, California.
All three men were cut from the same cloth. Viglienzone was more likely to sleep in the back of his 4Runner next to a trout stream than be pampered by a lodge. Though his hair and broad mustache had both gone white too, he had a youthful energy. A real “drop-of-the-hat kind of guy,” Smith said. Viglienzone raced sprint cars and street rods, freedived for abalone, and made his own wine and grappa.
After Smith retired from teaching in2003 , he took up farming full-time on a 13-acre parcel near town. He stayed lean and athletic well into his seventies by doing most of the labor himself and by going to the gym three days a week. “Doing the wilderness stuff, you’ve got to be in halfway decent shape,” he said.
He’d spent much of his retirement in the Sierra, fly-fishing remote mountain lakes and horse-packing dozens of miles into the backcountry. Smith’s golden years were never going to be sedentary.
The three men became fast friends, thanks to a shared appreciation for wild places and the hard work it took to reach them.
“I don’t hire anybody to do this stuff,” Viglienzone would say. “Life’s too short.”
Smith was the first to go overboard. He was seated in the bow, and the momentum of the raft pushed him into the alders, where a large branch swept him out of his seat and into the rushing water. Squires went next. His left oar became wedged in the tangle of wood. The oar swung violently in its oarlock, knocking him into the river and crumpling the raft’s aluminum frame.
Smith’s waders started to fill with water, and the pistol strapped to his chest felt like a weight pulling him under. Bouncing along the river bottom eight feet under, he took a sharp blow from a rock above his right eye. He grasped for any handhold within reach, finally wrapping his arms around a boulder and pulling himself to shore.
Alone in the raft, Viglienzone lunged for the oars, trying to regain control. He shouted back and forth with Squires, who was fighting the current and trying to swim to shore, but neither could hear the other over the water’s roar. Viglienzone didn’t see the boulder until it was too late. The raft hit broadside and flipped, tossing him into the rapids. Before it rocketed away, he managed to grab hold of the overturned boat. At the mercy of the current, he ricocheted from boulder to boulder for nearly a mile before the raft finally drifted into a side channel. There, a tree limb jutted above the water. He released his grip on the raft and lunged for the branch. Hand over hand, he pulled himself to shore.
Randy Viglienzone ( Wray Sinclair )
Smith and Viglienzone were both out of the American, but on opposite sides of the river, separated by nearly a mile. They were exhausted, beat up, and in the early stages of hypothermia, in an area with one of the highest concentrations of brown bears in Alaska. It was raining steadily, and neither had any way to start a fire.
You’re screwed, Viglienzone thought.
It had been six hours since they’d launched their raft. Neither had seen each other— or Squires —since the boat flipped. They were less than ten miles from where they’d launched and 30 miles from the takeout. Still, both men intuitively made the decision to head downstream. After all, their raft, gear, food, and—they hoped—friends were all somewhere below.
Smith walked for hours, stopping once to fire a round from his .44 into the air. All he heard in response was the constant droning rush of the American. After a while he spotted the overturned raft tangled in a logjam. There was no sign of his friends.
Viglienzone didn’t hear the shot. Downstream, on the opposite side of the river, he kept walking. You’ve got to move, he thought. He followed a bear trail along the shoreline, shouting “Hey, bear!” every third step, glancing often over his shoulder.
Amazingly—after setting off from different starting points and walking for several hours—the two men suddenly spotted each other across the river.
“Where’s John?” Smith mouthed over the roar of the river.
The American was still too high to cross, so the men walked downstream on opposite banks, trying to stay within sight of each other. Soon, Smith’s path veered into the woods, and they lost sight. Night fell after midnight. The temperature dipped into the forties, but to Smith, who was still soaking wet, it felt colder. Exhausted, he curled up beneath a pine tree just off the bear trail and pulled his puff-balled hat down over his face.
If a bear gets me, a bear gets me, he thought.
He couldn’t sleep, and after waiting out the darkness under the tree, he hit the trail again just before 6 a.m. Shortly after setting out, he caught a glimpse of something bright red through the trees. When he investigated, he found a drybag propped against a tree. And beyond it, a campsite.
On June 20, Mike Goeser was three days into an eight-day float with his clients John Drawbert, an orthopedic surgeon from Wisconsin, and Drawbert’s son Hans. The river had been high when they put in, and it had only got worse. There’s no gauge on the American, so it’s impossible to know for sure, but by Goeser’s reckoning the river was now at twice its average June flow.
Soft-spoken, with a faint Wisconsin accent, Goeser was a former college football player from the University of Minnesota Duluth. At 36, he was still built like a defensive end.
Not much could surprise the veteran guide. But that morning he and the Drawberts emerged from their tents to find an elderly man, soaking wet and badly bruised, collapsed in a camp chair.
It was Smith. Barely able to speak, he pointed toward the far bank. There, shivering in a cloud of mosquitoes, sat Viglienzone.
“Load everything up—now!” Goeser barked. “We’ll go down about 300 yards. There’s a little rocky outcropping there.”
Goeser gave Smith some dry layers and then used his satellite phone to call the National Park Service and his boss, Chad Hewitt, at Rainbow River Lodge in Iliamna. The men quickly broke camp. Although Viglienzone was directly across the river, reaching him wasn’t going to be easy. They were separated by a wave train of whitewater six feet high. Goeser put everything he had into the oars.
“Get downstream!” he shouted to Viglienzone.
For every yard they gained across the river, they were pushed three yards downstream. Finally, the raft bumped up against the rocks on the far bank. With the help of Hans, Goeser was able to pull Viglienzone in.
Now everyone was in danger. The weather was worsening, and there were five large men in a fully loaded raft designed for three.
Communication with Hewitt was spotty; Goesser had a better connection with Bill Betts, the owner of the Iliamna River Lodge, who relayed messages to Hewitt. Still, Hewitt had heard enough to know that a friend was in trouble. Squires had been using Rainbow River Aviation for years, and he and Hewitt had become close.
Hewitt wasted no time. He had his most experienced guide, Jon Streeter, quickly gear up for a search and rescue run of American Creek. Streeter stood six-foot-one, but his powerful frame—the result of 20 years rowing Alaskan rivers—made him look taller. His facial hair changed with his moods, but he always wore a blue Michigan Wolverines baseball hat. Streeter asked Zach Nemelka, a young camp hand, to join him. They met Hewitt at the float plane and flew a low, searching pass over the American before landing at Hammersly Lake. Streeter and Nemelka were on the river by 10:30 that morning.
Hewitt continued to search from the air, relaying coordinates for areas of interest to Streeter on the raft below. Two helicopters were also now en route—a Park Service search and rescue chopper, and a Coast Guard Apache equipped with infrared thermal scanning.
The park rangers instructed Goeser to find a spot where they could land their helicopter, but his group was just above a long canyon whose cliff walls rose several hundred feet above the river.
“There’s no way you’ll be able to bring a helicopter in there,” Goeser told them.
John Squires (Joe Hauner)
They’d need to find a spot above the canyon. The only option was a narrow boulder bar, overgrown with alders. Goeser put the entire group to work clearing brush, including Smith and Viglienzone, hoping it might warm them up. Once the site was cleared, they built a fire and waited.
When the helicopter arrived, the pilot studied the makeshift landing zone for several minutes, clearly concerned about the safety of putting the bird down on such sketchy terrain. Finally he landed.
The Park Service ranger assessed the situation and determined that Smith and Viglienzone were stable enough to float the 30 miles to the takeout with the in-bound Streeter and Nemelka. There they’d catch a ride from Hewitt. The Park Service helicopter would stay and search for Squires.
A nervous silence fell over the group. Smith and Viglienzone didn’t want to get back on the American, not after what they’d been through. Finally, Viglienzone spoke up.
“I’m alive,” he said to the ranger. “Go get John.” Smith nodded.
Streeter arrived at the boulder bar at 1:30 p.m. He’d floated past the point where Squires was last spotted but saw nothing but alders and river rocks. Smith and Viglienzone loaded into Streeter’s raft. Eight hours later, when Hewitt’s floatplane touched down on the flooded braids of the lower river to pick them up, Streeter’s group was waiting. Streeter had rowed the entire length of American Creek—normally a six-day float—in a single day, an unheard-of feat of oarsmanship and endurance. The guides were exhausted. Smith and Viglienzone were hypothermic. It was late, and a weather system was closing in.
“Get in now, we’re getting out of here!” Hewitt shouted. Minutes later they were airborne, headed to Iliamna.
For the next five days, Hewitt had his planes in the air constantly, funding the search effort out of his own pocket. Vicki Squires and her sons—Joe Hauner and Joe’s brother, Dan—flew to Iliamna on Monday, June 25. Goeser, who had finished out his trip guiding the Drawberts down some of the hairiest water he’d ever encountered on the American, picked them up from the airstrip and drove them to the lodge.
“We’re going back,” Goeser told the family. “We’re going to do everything we can to bring him home.” What he didn’t say was that at this point, they were likely searching for a body.
On Tuesday morning, Hewitt flew the family members and Goeser and Nemelka up to Hammersly Lake. It had been one week since the accident. The two guides launched their raft for another search. The family wandered the tundra near the American’s headwaters. Hope had faded.
“We wanted to see the river,” said Hauner. “We hung out for an hour. We took a rock. Things you do.”
In the weeks following the accident Hewitt and his guides recovered almost all the group’s gear, including their raft. They found no sign of John Squires. Smith and Viglienzone flew home to their families in California. Their bruises healed, but the pain remained. Still, the disaster on American Creek won’t keep them out of the wilderness. John wouldn’t want that.
“A lot of people will never do things like this,” Smith said. “They’ll never know what it’s all about. I want to keep doing it as long as I can.”
“I want to finish it,” said Viglienzone, who plans to return to the American next summer, guided by the men who saved his life. “But I feel like I don’t deserve to enjoy it, because John didn’t get to.”
His friends and family will tell you that John Squires’s legacy is larger than the length and width of one river.
“His heart was in Alaska,” said Hewitt. “He was the real deal.”
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Future of Voice Shopping: What Retailers Need to Know
Siri Microsoft Cortana
This technology has completely revolutionized the retail industry and now it is even possible to order a pizza using Domino’s app! You can simply say your pizza preference and the company will deliver it to your doorstep. No typing!
Other brands like Whirlpool and Ocado have partnered with major digital assistants like Alexa to hop on the voice search wagon. For example, Whirlpool appliances can receive voice commands through Alexa, so you can do your laundry by just saying so! British online supermarket Ocado, now allows you to add groceries onto your shopping list while you cook, all thanks to your voice.
How to optimise for voice search?
While your overall SEO strategy might aim for a wider reach, your voice search marketing strategy should be optimised for your local community. In fact, mobile voice-related searches are 3x more likely to be locally-based compared to text.
In order to success in your eCommerce marketing strategy 2019, you want to make sure your business is optimised to appear on local voice search. You can do this by naming the location of your business in several key spots throughout your digital presence. It is important to do so on social media and Google My Business which will appear on Google Search and Google Maps. Having your geographical location listed in multiple places will definitely help with SEO for your business.
While optimising for voice search you need to analyse how your consumers search when they talk and prepare the accurate keywords for your content. In fact, voice search queries tend to be three-to-five keywords in length. Most of the voice queries use natural language and come in a form of a problem, which means you should consider providing content in the form of questions and answers. A lot of users look for information by asking questions and looking to find a quick answer, so you should carefully look for a short but complete response to a query using long tail keywords.
Since voice search is slowly taking over mobile searches in general, you should definitely consider investing your time in optimising your website for mobile. Make sure your design is responsive, site loads fast enough, and content is clear, written accordingly with the voice search requirements.
Consider how your customers will benefit from voice technology and how you want to integrate the feature in your business. The need for voice optimisation is rising and in order to be easily discoverable you need to implement this to an eCommerce marketing strategy for your brand. Voice shopping popularity is still growing, 58% of regular users nowadays, manage shopping lists on a weekly basis and 52% of voice-activated speaker owners are open to the information about promotions and deals.
Let’s wrap it up
Voice search is definitely transforming eCommerce and opening many doors for online retailers. You need to follow the future trends and prepare your platform for voice technology which is taking over the world of eCommerce. In order to rank well in the crowded market, remember these few practises that will help you optimise for voice search and benefit your business: List your location on your social media profiles and across your general digital presence to optimise your location for local search. Target long tail keywords to make your brand more discoverable. Write content in the form of questions and answers, using natural language. Reply using short and comprehensive sentences. Make sure your site is as mobile friendly as it possibly can be.
Contributor: Karolina is a content writer for Appnova , a creative digital agency based in London that specialises in luxury brands. She loves to write content based on current ecommerce, social media and marketing trends and provide insight into customer care, fashion and the beauty sector. More Ecommerce
Thursday Movie Picks: TV Edition-Books to TV Adaptations
Tv time since it is the last Thursday and the last day of February which is wild. Where is this year going? I have had some crappola happen which we all have but it seems to be getting to me and I don’t like that. This past weekend we had a wind storm which took off part of our roof and my hubby must go for another operation on his right shoulder. Ughhhh….as a result, I have fallen down on reading some great blogs and I feel so bad about that since I enjoy it. You still come to visit here and I am so very, very thankful. Ok, TV adaptations…let’s see what Wandering Through The Shelves will showcase. Here are my 3…
1. LITTLE HOUSE ON THE PRAIRIE-1974-1983
I watched this show every week faithfully since I always loved Michael Landon from his Bonanza days. This is based on the books by Laura Ingalls Wilder, which I read when I was in grade school, based on her experiences with her family growing up in the Midwest during the 1880’s. Laura Ingalls was played by Melissa Gilbert who was so good in her role as the feisty kid who sees things through her eyes as she deals with nature, people and her nemesis, Nellie Olsen. I loved all the characters in Walnut Grove and some of the episodes were brilliant like the snowstorm and the fire at the blind school costing the lives of a regular of the series plus the baby of Mary (Laura’s sister). Some of the episodes really held your heart and I still like watching the show despite the Ingalls’ home looking like a huge Outhouse. Oh yes, today, as I write this, we are having a snow storm:).
This is a huge miniseries that should be shown in schools and be on Netflix because of the horrors the African Americans experienced for hundreds of years. The book was written by Alex Haley who, many years later came out that the people in the book were not his ancestors but that does not matter because almost all African Americans today have roots in slavery. I can not begin to imagine that my ancestry can be found in a log of purchases and see my ancestors’ name listed as property. It is disgusting! This film follows Kunta Kinte from the time he is taken from his homeland, brought over by ship to America and sold for labour. You want him to escape and he tries, more than once but, in the end, he does not succeed and must watch as his daughter is sold to another slave owner. You follow the family all the way to gaining freedom. It is a miniseries that riveted North America and showcased how horrifying that time was.
3. EAST OF EDEN-1981
This miniseries is a great retelling of the major work done by John Steinbeck. Jane Seymour was the main protagonist and she was brilliant in this role and so evil. The Film, with James Dean, is excellent but only deals with the last part of the book whereas this miniseries brings the whole book to life. We see how a father seems to favour one son over another with one son seemingly virtuous and the other a wild rebel. When the father dies, the sons inherit a fortune and in comes Jane Seymour whom we already have met as she has already killed her parents and beguiled one man to suicide. Of course both men succumb to her beauty and charm and she gives birth to twins. The twins, when they grow up, seem to repeat the same story which is where the film version begins. If you ever get a chance to see this, I would advise to sit back and enjoy this great miniseries.
I bet, that if Netflix was around in the 1970 and 80s, I would not have seen these shows because I don’t have Netflix. I find it, in many ways, a shame that I have to pay extra to see shows that are on Netflix, HBO, Hulu or whatever other streaming blah blahs are out there. I do want to see Game of Thrones one day but that is one day so, for now, I choose these greats from yesteryear.
Which TV shows, from books, would you choose?
How Katherine Mansfield’s Writing Changed Through
Katherine Mansfield was predominantly a short hi narration author born in pertly Zealand in 1888. Although she has often been quoted demonstrating a minus work out on New Zealand, she thanks God she was born in New Zealand. Her founding overprotect was a successful business globe and her nonplus was a jr. womanhood. It is widely ac familiarityd that her parents played a major(ip) quality on her views of manpower and woman in society and the sexual urge imbalance.She began penning from a genuinely early age penning for her hessian high school newsletter. One of her first novels and 1 which strongly represents her views on the sexual activity imbalance in society was Frau Brechenmacher Attends a get married. This study represents the Frau precise much as the subservient housewife to her to a greater extent(prenominal) dominant and scare conserve. The first instance of this is when Frau threatens her daughter with the wrath of her father, to which the daughter at present responds to the request.This stratum was strongly based on what Mansfield had seen in her magazine living in Germ either in the earlier stages of her career and the accounting is an undisguised satire of the German point of reference, in particular the German housewife who Mansfield saw as unsympathetic and roughwhat shallow due to their displeasure of their role in society. The story of Frau Brechenmacher continues on and the Frau and her keep up attend a wedding. Katherine Mansfield describes the bride as having the appearance of an iced surface all ready to be cut and served in neat elflike pieces to the bridegroom beside her.This is a rattling blatant and obvious piece of writing that outlines the womans role in a marriage. This shows that the bride is a guileless object to the groom and her role in the marriage is to please her hubby. Also, the story goes in to detail active the daughter existence shown the role of a woman by her m opposite which is enco uraging the cycle of womans servitude and therefore Mansfield puts a prejudicial light on the subject, shown by the quote, girls stick out a lot to learn which carries a negative con nonation.However, the Frau is awarfaree of her bunk and does not peculiarly enjoy it as everybody laughed at his speech, except the Frau and She wanted to go stead and never sleep with out again. Katherine Mansfield was opposed to the opinion of the traditional role of woman in society and the gender imbalance that was so obvious to her as favourable to the man. Also, she saw and be men as predaceous. This is shown at the very end of Frau Brechenmacher Attends a Wedding when it is stated that she lay on her bed who expected to get cause to be perceived as Herr Brechenmacher lurched in. This is ot the first instance in the story where the Frau and even so her daughter are shown to be intimidated by the dominant common fig of the relationship in Herr Brechenmacher. This is wherefore Katheri ne Mansfield intentionally chose to refer to him as the father throughout the story as it is like a title. Titles are wedded to people who are important figures and by swelled him this title and Herr Brechenmacher creation referred to as the father by his wife and daughter show that they have got a certain respect for him simply in like manner gives the sense of surmount between the husband and his family.The root of distance between the Frau and her husband is roughly prolifically represented when he lurches in which implies the idea of forced sex on his behalf. This shows that even though they are husband and wife, they are extremely distanced and usher out potentially not even have consenting sex. This enhances Mansfields view of the woman as an object or accessory to the husband as purely for the pleasure of her partner. Frau Brechenmacher is also impersonateed to be much to a greater extent comfortable when she is in the house solely without her husband.Although she is often doing her duties for her husband, she is more relaxed in that environment without the oppressive Herr Brechenmacher. There is a sense of uneasiness when Herr Brechenmacher returns home as she sends her daughter into the bedroom and begins to rush to get everything ready and correct for her husband. This gives the impression that the house is a sanctuary for all subservient women and that was how Katherine Mansfield viewed it and writes on the matter with such satirical influence.The short story, Frau Brechenmacher Attends a Wedding, is a story that does not carry many subliminal or hidden messages when dealing with the criticism of the womens role in society. It is unlike some of her by and by whole kit that hide the ideas that are intended to be portrayed. It is a very matter of fact piece of writing that was strongly scrutinized for the views and opinions that it was showcasing, which is potentially wherefore Katherine Mansfield decided to write her afterward on( prenominal) works that had similar themes with more kickshaw and subtlety.An another(prenominal) short story by Katherine Mansfield which deals with the same issues that are brought to light in Frua Brechenmacher Attends a Wedding is The woman at the repositing create verbally dickens years after Frau Brechenmacher in 1912. Similarly with Frau Brechenmacher, The adult female at the inject deals with the issues of gender imbalance and the oppressive male figure in relationships in a very unsubtle and obvious way. However, unlike Frua Brechenmacher, Mansfield deals with these issues in a much more violent and twisted manner in The woman at the Store which ends in a melodramatic twist.This is similar to other short stories written in the same era of Mansfield including Ole Underwood and Millie. The Woman at the Store is a story of two men and a girl change of location by horseback through a stripped environment in the North Island of New Zealand. They come across a house in w hich lives a woman and her daughter and one of the travelling men knows her from previous journeys. However, the woman is not what she apply to be or how she is previously described to be certainly her eyes were blue, and what hair she had was yellow, but ugly.This comes to a surprise by all the travellers as they had been promised marvellous things by a character named Hin Dont forget theres a woman too, Jo, with blue eyes and yellow hair, wholl promise you something else before she shakes men with you. It is revealed to us as the reader that the woman was once a handsome woman and a barmaid but that had all changed once she became wed and pudding head children. This is also another common theme that is seen throughout Mansfields writings, particularly the ones that have a strong feminist base and represent men as oppressive and somewhat ruining their female counterparts.The idea of child-birth beingnessness the bane of a womans existence is shown in some of Mansfields works where she writes about the role of woman as objects for giving birth to children for the male in the relationships sake. This is shown in The Woman at the Store when the woman is abusive to her only child, yelling her and speaking down to her. Also, later in the story when all the characters are drinking whisky roughly a table, the woman becomes up execute and starts to talk about her livelihood when she says Its six years since I was married, and four miscarriages.This quote has a negative tone to it and gives the impression that the woman is not happy about her built in bed that her husband has remaining her in. The woman is also extremely bitter towards her husband for the life that he has given to her which is the way that Mansfield represents her ideas of the female in relationships being unpleased by marriage and the new role they have had to take on as the generic housewife. The bitterness of the woman towards her husband is best shown by the quote Over and over I tells im youve broken my spirit and done for(p) my looks, and wot for.The idea of men as predatory which is so often used in Mansfields works is also briefly alluded to in The Woman at the Store, however, in this story it is much less obvious. Jo, the oldest of the trey travellers is pleased to learn that the woman at the store has been left unaccompanied by her husband and uses this as a window of opportunity to potentially sleep with the woman. This is made cognize to the reader when Jo cleans himself up before locomote to the house to spend the evening drinking with the woman and the three travellers.Also, it is famous that they were kissing feet under the table. Jo and the woman end up quiescence together that night and although it may not seem to be predatory on Jos behalf, it can be interpreted this way. The reasoning for this is because Jo showed more interest in the woman once learning that her husband goes outside and often and how much she dislikes this. Also, Jo often e ncourages the woman to continue drinking whiskey which could be interpreted as him coaxing her in.The message that Katherine Mansfield is trying to experience in The Woman at the Store is the criticism of womens addiction on men during the time that the story was being written and it also criticises women for perpetuating the cycle of womanhood that they are subjected to. The fate of the womans husband is later revealed by her strange child who is known to draw everything she says kinda of vocally delivering her messages. The child is also referred to by one of the travellers as having a diseased mind. This along with the repetition of the references to her drawings subconsciously prepares the reader for what is to come.The daughter, in spite of her mother, draws a picture of woman shooting a man and digging a hole to bury him in. Katherine Mansfield chose this ending to the story because it carries a shock-factor. Throughout the story, negative references had been made about the father of the child by the woman and how she despised him for what he had done to her. By ending the story like this, Mansfield has demonstrated that murder is the only answer to oppression and conquering imposed by the male role in society. However, this is only a satirical view by Mansfield.She uses such little mundaneness in this story and ends it with such a melodramatic ending so that the idea woman do not have to put up with such degrading behaviour from their husbands becomes so clear and obvious. Another reference to the miss of sophistication in The Woman at the Store, one of Mansfields earlier short stories, is the juxtaposition of the weather and the tone or sensory system of the story. For example, when the weather is sunny, the surliness of the story is light-hearted and as the weather turns more unpleasant, the mood of the story becomes more sinister.Between her short stories from the collection A German award which included Frau Brechenmacher and The Woman at t he Store and her short story The tend Party, many things had changed in the life of Katherine Mansfield. She had continued to write solidly through this time period but she had since moved from Germany and moved to capital of the United Kingdom where she would meet her future husband, John Middleton Murray. They had spent some time in Paris and she also spent a few months in Paris, layabout enemy lines, once war had broken out.Her brother had died in the war which was a huge blow to Katherine, and during this time her health had also declined and she was diagnosed with tuberculosis. every these events in Mansfields life had altered the way in which she wrote, with her stories having more focus on characters and inter-character relations. It brought about a whole new sophistication to Mansfields works however her views on men had still not changed, even after having a somewhat contented marriage and other relations with men.This is shown in a letter to John Middleton Murray in 191 9 person came to me and said Forget, forget that youve been wed. Whos your man to leave you be sick(p) and cold in a far country? Whos the husband whos the stone Could leave a child like you alone This letter or poem if you will, shows that Mansfield has turned in to the women who is dependent on her male counterpart which she had prolifically wrote against in her earlier stories. However, she later acknowledged this and wrote about it in resentment.Also, during the time between her German Pension collection and her later stories, including The garden Party she had developed her characters, often reflecting her own life and life experiences in them. This is what is seen to be her sophistication in her later works. Mansfields later works such as the Garden Party have been known to focus less on the plotline of the story and more on specialised events in the story, and more importantly, the relationships between her characters. It is through these relationships that her motives f or writing he stories come through. For example, the way Laura in The Garden Party tries to imitate her mothers actions Good morning, she said copying her mothers voice. This is a hone example of Mansfields view on woman allowing the cycle of jejunity to continue and when looked at in greater depth shows how the older woman influence their daughters to do so. Again, this is ripe one of Katherine Mansfields views on the role of woman in society that is shown throughout her short stories, but this time it is alluded to in a more subtle way. The Garden Party was written in 1922, more than 10 years after The Woman at the Store and Frau Brechenmacher but her views had not changed in this time. However, some of the shipway in which she presents her views in The Garden Party are much more school than previous stories. For example, workmen are preparing to set up a marquee for the garden party and suggest that it should go in front of some karaka trees. Laura contemplates whether this should be done and comments on the beauty of the trees and how solitary they were.But in the end she decides that they moldiness be covered by the marquee. This could be seen as a simile for the beauty of woman being covered and hidden by men, being the marquee. And the fact that Laura uses the words they must shows how she has been brought up to think that woman should be squandered by men. Laura from The Garden Party is also often left admiring the workmen in the story and commenting on how wonderful they were. At first glance, any reader may take it at face value.But with prior knowledge of Mansfields other stories and her views, you would be able to pick up on the underlying satire that is rampant throughout the story. Satire is one of the ways in which Mansfield expresses her views and opinions on different matters, quite often concerning gender imbalance. The idea of the woman being the domestic person around the house and the father being the oppressive figure just like in Frau Brechenmacher Attends a Wedding is also evident in The Garden Party. In the read up to the party, Mrs Sheridan orders her children to do all different tasks while she does her own, and the children respond immediately as they look up to their mother. But however in one instance where she is in a rush she threatens them, Do you hear me, children, or shall I have to tell your father when he comes home to-night? The Garden Party is very closely related to Katherine Mansfield herself, with the story being set in a grand house in New Zealand. When she was younger she lived in lavish houses with her parents and siblings just like in the story.Also, the main character Laura, can possibly be seen as Mansfield herself or having aspects and qualities like her. This is why this story is often regarded as her best short story as it incorporates many themes and because she is writing somewhat from her own life experiences, she is able to portray these themes and ideas extremely well. For example, Laura is the one character who shows respect for their neighbours who had just had a terminal in the family and she is shown as a character with a set of morals, just like Mansfield herself.The ways in which Mansfield relates herself directly to her situations and characters in her later works such as The Garden Party are what are seen as to be her sophistication and maturing in her writing style. She moved away from very obvious and simplistic ways of getting her ideas across to her audience, to a more subtle and underlying way of getting the ideas through to her readers. And because of her maturing in her writing and her skill in her craft, she has become to be known as New Zealands, and one of the worlds, best short story writers of her time.